Health Program

 Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer is a disease that occurs when abnormal cells in the testicles (testes) begin to grow in an uncontrolled manner.

Risk Factors

The exact cause for testicular cancer is yet unknown, however here are several conditions that may increase your risk:

  • Cryptorchidism (undescended testicle)

  • Infertility

  • Klinefelter syndrome

  • Family history

  • Multiple atypical nevi

  • HIV infection

  • Carcinoma in situ

  • Cancer of the other testicle

  • Age

  • Race and ethnicity

  • Body size


  • A noticeable change in the size or shape of one of both testes, either with or without pain.

  • A feeling of heaviness in the scrotum.

  • A dull pressure or pain in the lower back, abdomen, and/or groin.

How is Testicular cancer diagnosed?

  • Medical history and physical exam

  • Testicular ultrasound

  • Blood tests

  • Imaging tests: CT or CAT scan


Common methods used to treat testicular cancer include:

  • Radical inguinal orchiectomy

  • Chemotherapy

  • Radiation therapy


Performing a monthly testicular self-exam can be used as a preventive measure. The best time to perform the self-exam is during or after a bath or shower when the skin of the scrotum is relaxed. To perform a testicular self-exam you:

  • You hold the penis out of the way and examine each testicle separately.

  • Hold the testicle between the thumbs and fingers with both hands and roll it gently between the fingers.

  • Look and feel for any hard lumps or nodules (smooth rounded masses) or any change in the size, shape, or consistency of the testes.


  • A cancer related check-up is recommended every 3 years for men aged 20-40 years or older.

  • Keep yourself as healthy as possible.

  • Be alert to changes in your body.

  • Don’t put off seeing your doctor if you detect any changes.


  • The American Cancer Society estimates that about 8,250 new cases of testicular cancer will be diagnosed during 2006 in the U.S.

  • An estimated 370 men will die of testicular cancer in 2006.

  • According to the National Cancer Institute, the 5 year survival rate for all men with this cancer is over 96%.

  • There are nearly 140,000 men who have survived testicular cancer in the U.S.